A Scientometric Assessment of Obesity Research Publications from India during 2007-16

Gupta, Mueen Ahmed, and Gupta: A Scientometric Assessment of Obesity Research Publications from India during 2007-16

Authors

INTRODUCTION

The term overweight refers to excess body weight for a particular height whereas the term obesity is used to define excess body fat. Overweight and obesity primarily happen either due to excess calorie intake or insufficient physical activity or both. Furthermore, various genetic, behavioural, and environmental factors play a role in its pathogenesis.[1]

Obesity is known to affect the overall health of a population. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), overweight and obesity are the fifth leading risk for global deaths. Obesity is also found to be associated with a number of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders and some forms of cancers. Statistics indicate that 44% of the diabetes burden, 23% of the heart disease burden and between 7% and 41% of certain cancer burdens can be attributed to overweight and obesity.[2]

Worldwide, the number of obese people rose to 641 million in 2014 from 105 million in 1975, according to a study published in the British medical journal, the Lancet. The study, comparing body-mass index from 1975 to 2014 from adults in 186 countries showed middle- and poorer-income countries like China, India and Brazil jumped in rankings when it came to obesity although India and China also have the most underweight citizens in the world.[3] This study demonstrated that India has raced to third place, after the United States of America and China in the highest number of obese people worldwide; the United States of America accounting for 13% of obese people globally and India together with China accounting for 15% of the world’s obese.[4] Recent studies using Indian specific criteria for overweight (BMI ≥ 23), obesity (BMI ≥ 25) and abdominal obesity (WC ≥ 90 cm in men and ≥80 cm in women) have found the prevalence rates among Indians exceeding those in the US population.[5]

Global obesity rates almost tripled for men to 11% of the total from 3.2% in 1975, while among women it nearly doubled to 15% from 6.4% in 1975. China had the most obese men and women in the world in 2014. Still, India saw a more significant rise in obesity from its 19th position for both men and women in 1975 to rankings 5th and 3rd respectively in 2014, reflecting increasing obesity rates among women worldwide.[3]

India’s women are more likely to be obese than their male counterparts. There were 20 million obese women in India in 2014 compared with 9.8 million obese men. Severe obesity was observed in an additional 4 million Indian women. There were less than 800,000 obese women in India in 1975 compared with 400,000 obese men.[3]

India, known for its malnourished population, now has more and more overweight and obese people having high risk of adverse consequences. Obesity in India is different from the rest of the world; the “Thin-Fat Indian Phenotype”[6] in that the proportion of body fat, abdominal obesity, subcutaneous fat, intra-abdominal fat and ectopic deposition of fat is more in Indian overweight and obese population. This, along with the genetic predisposition of Indians for high lipoprotein (a) levels, predisposes Indians at high risk of developing diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and death, particularly at younger age than the rest of the world. When India is still fighting against rural under-nutrition, the rising threat of urban obesity makes the problem double sided.

Obesity is usually reported in terms of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) but the cutoff points differ by ethnicity. Earlier studies for assessment of obesity in India used the standard criteria (developed for and by Caucasians/Europids) that have significantly underestimated the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in India.[7,8]

Literature Review

Few bibliometric studies have been carried out in the past in the past on global assessment of obesity research publications. Among country studies, one study focuses on Canada. Among such studies, Khan, Choudhury, Uddin and Baur[9] made an attempt to study was to understand research trends among 117,340 research articles, their collaboration patterns together with scholarly impact within the domain of global obesity research during 1993-2012, using Scopus database The authors found steady growth and an exponential increase of publication numbers. The authors also identified around 42 broad disciplines from authors’ affiliation data, and these showed strong collaboration between them. Vioque, Ramos, Navarrete-Muñoz and García-de-la-Hera[10] described a bibliometric review of the publications (58325) on obesity research in PubMed over the last 20 years from 1988 to 2007. The growth in the number of publications showed an exponential increase. The references were published in 3613 different journals, with 20 journals contributing 25% of obesity literature. The US was the predominant country in number of publications, followed by the United Kingdom, Japan and Italy. The ranking of production changed when the number of publications was normalized by population, gross domestic product and obesity prevalence by countries. Sokar and Sharma[11] identified research published on obesity in Canada and explored the range of areas studied and identified gaps and areas that merit future research attention. A total of 1186 relevant articles were identified, of which 816 were considered original studies and accepted for this analysis. Twelve research areas were identified: basic science involving animal experiments (29%), human experiments (16%), populations surveys (14%), obesity-related comorbidities (13%), diagnostic/surgical issues (11%), non-pharmacological approaches (7%), drug-related issues (4%), anthropometrics (2%), impact of weight loss (2%), cost/healthcare use (1%), attitudes/perceptions (0.9%), and models/procedures (0.5%). Two-thirds of all research was conducted in Quebec (34%) and Ontario (33%). Canadian obesity research covers a broad range of areas with a predominance of basic science but lesser emphasis on community and primary care studies. Since no bibliometric study was available on India in the past and as a result we decided to undertake the present study .

OBJECTIVES

The main objectives of this study are to study the performance of Indian obesity research during 2007-16, based on publications output covered in Scopus database. In particular, the study focuses on the following objectives: (i) To study the growth of world and Indian research output in obesity research and the citation impact of India’s research; (ii) To study the international collaboration share of top 10 most productive countries in India’s output; (iii) To study the Indian research output by broad subject areas and the dynamics of its growth and decline; (iv) To study the trends in Indian obesity research by identifying significant keywords; (v) To study the publication productivity and citation impact of top 25 and 20 most productive Indian productive organizations and authors; (vi) To study the modes of communication in research and identification of most productive journals and (vii) to study the characteristics of top 114 Indian highly cited papers.

METHODOLOGY

The publication data on obesity research in India was retrieved and downloaded from the Scopus database (http://www.scopus.com) covering the 10 years period 2007-16. Scopus is an online bibliographical multidisciplinary publication and citation database prepared by Elsevier and covers nearly 22,000 titles in the science, technology, medical, social sciences and humanities. The search strategy in the present paper was based on the search for obesity research publications in which keywords such as “obesity”’ had appeared in either “Keyword tag” or “Article Title tag” or “Source Title tag”. The time was set from 2007 to 2016. Using analytical commands or tags, such as “year”, “document type”, “source type”, “language”, “subject area”, “keyword”, “author name”, “affiliation”, “country/territory” and “source type” available in Scopus database, the authors were able to analyze publication distribution by year-wise, document type, source type, language-wise, subject-wise, keywords, source title and identify important authors and organizations and distribution of international collaborative publications and also leading collaborative countries. The publications receiving 100 or more citations from the date of publications till 21 June 2017 was designated here as high cited papers. A number of raw and relative bibliographical indicators were used to assess and understand the growth and dynamics of Indian obesity research. The raw bibliographical indicators used were: growth rate number of publications and international collaborative publications, citation per paper, h-index, etc. Among relative bibliographical indicators, we have used activity index and relative citation index.

(KEY( obesity) OR TITLE( obesity)OR SRCTITLE( obesity)) AND PUBYEAR > 1996 AND PUBYEAR < 2017 AND ( LIMIT-TO ( AFFILCOUNTRY,”India” ) )

ANALYSIS

The total global and Indian research output in field of obesity research cumulated to 195661 and 3960 publications in 10 years during 2007-16. The annual output of the world and India in obesity research increased from 14485 and 206 in the year 2007 to 17817 and 416 publications in the year 2016, registering 3.03% and 10.28% growth per annum. The cumulative world and India’s output in obesity research in 5 years 2007-11 increased from 83995 and 1334 to 111666 and 2626 publications during succeeding 5-year period 2012-16, registering 32.94% and 96.85% quinquennial growth. India’s share in global output in obesity research was 2.02%, which increased from 1.59% to 2.35% from 2007-11 to 2012-16. Of the total global publications output in obesity research, 69.05% (3150) was published as articles, 17.36% (792) as reviews, 6.25% (285) as letters, 2.74% (125) as editorials, 1.51% (69) as conference papers, 1.47 (67) as notes and the rest as book chapters (35), short surveys (22), articles in press (10), erratum (6) and book (1). The citation impact of global publications on obesity research averaged to 12.50 citations per publication (CPP) during 2007-16; five-yearly impact averaged to 23.02 CPP for the period 2007-11 which declined to 7.16 CPP in the succeeding five-year 2012-16 (Table 1).

Table 1

World and Indian Publication Output in Obesity Research, 2007-16

PublicationWorldIndia
YearTPTPTCCPP%TPICP%ICP
200714485206570727.701.423215.53
200815399194592830.561.263819.59
200916487212589827.821.293817.92
201018308319694221.761.745918.50
201119316403623815.482.097217.87
201221477528587811.132.4610219.32
20132368253750529.412.2710218.99
20142443156649768.792.3213323.50
20152425957916862.912.3912120.90
20161781741612072.902.3310525.24
2007-118399513343071323.021.5923917.92
2012-161116662626187997.162.3556321.44
2007-1619566139604951212.502.0280220.25

TP=Total Papers; TC=Total Citations; CPP=Citations Per Paper

Table 2

Share of Leading Foreign Countries in India’s Collaborative Research Output in Obesity Research during 2007-16

Collaborative CountryNumber of PapersShare of Papers
2007-112012-162007-162007-112012-162007-16
USA12635147752.7262.3459.48
U.K.6920727628.8736.7734.41
Canada19951147.9516.8714.21
Australia21881098.7915.6313.59
China970793.7712.439.85
Japan1456705.869.958.73
Brazil1046564.188.176.98
Italy1243555.027.646.86
France1835537.536.226.61
Germany1340535.447.106.61
Switzerland1435495.866.226.11
South Africa642482.517.465.99
Denmark1335485.446.225.99
Singapore434381.676.044.74
Taiwan631372.515.514.61
India239563802100.00100.00100.00

International Collaboration

India’s share of internationally collaborative papers (ICP) in obesity research was 20.25% during 2007-16, which increased from 17.92% to 21.44% from 2007-11 to 2012-16. Among the leading countries contributing to India’s internationally collaborative papers, USA topped the list with 59.48% share, followed by U.K. (34.41%), Canada (14.21%), Australia (13.59%), China (9.85%), Japan (8.73%), Brazil (6.98%), etc. India’s international collaborative publications share increased by 9.62% in USA, 8.92% in Canada, 8.66% in China, 7.90% in U.K., 6.84% in Australia, 4.95% in South Africa, 4.37% in Singapore, 4.09% in Japan, 3.99% in Brazil, 3% in Taiwan, 2.62% in Italy, 1.66% in Germany, 0.78% in Denmark and 0.36% in Switzerland as against decrease by 1.31% in France from 2007-11 to 2012-16 (Table 2).

Table 3

Global Publication Share of Top 15 Most Productive Countries in Obesity Research during 2007-16

Name of the CountryNumber of PapersShare of Papers
2007-112012-162007-162007-112012-162007-16
USA30949647379568636.8557.9748.90
U.K.729314956222498.6813.3911.37
Germany41538600127534.947.706.52
Italy38658391122564.607.516.26
Canada36817837115184.387.025.89
Australia37247691114154.436.895.83
France34117412108234.066.645.53
Spain33706766101364.016.065.18
Japan2954646394173.525.794.81
China2035606981042.425.434.14
Brazil2244491371572.674.403.66
Netherlands2185469168762.604.203.51
Sweden1930426761972.303.823.17
South Korea1459358550441.743.212.58
India1334262639601.592.352.02
Total7458715900423359188.80142.39119.39
World83995111666195661100.00100.00100.00
Share of 15 Countries in World Total88.80142.39119.39

Top 10 Most Productive Countries in Obesity Research

The global research output in the field of obesity research had originated in more than 100 countries in the world during 2007-16. Top 15 most productive countries in obesity had contributed 23359 publications, which account for more than 100% of global publications during 2007-16. Each of top 15 countries accounted for 2.02% to 48.90% global publication share during 2007-16, with USA accounting for the highest publication share (48.90%), followed by U.K. (11.37%), Germany and Italy (6.52% and 6.26%), Canada, Australia, Spain and France (from 5.18% to 5.89%), Japan and China (4.14% and 4.81%), Brazil , Netherlands and Sweden (from 3.17% to 3.66%), South Korea and India (2.02% and 2.58%) during 2007-16. The global publication share in five years increased by 21.12% by USA, followed by U.K. and China (4.71% and 3.01%), Italy, Germany, Canada, France, Australia, Japan and Spain (from 2.05% to 2.91%), Brazil, Netherlands, Sweden and South Korea (1.47% to 1.73%) and India (0.76%) from 2007-11 to 2012-16 (Table 3).

Subject-Wise Distribution of Research Output

The Indian obesity research output published during 2007-16 is distributed across eight sub-fields (as identified in Scopus database classification), with medicine accounting for the highest publications share (89.22%), followed by biochemistry, genetics & molecular biology (34.24%), pharmacology, toxicology & pharmaceutics (20.53%), nursing (8.33%), agricultural & biological sciences (5.96%), chemistry (2.02%), neurosciences (1.92%) and immunology and microbiology (1.67%) during 2007-16. The activity index, which computes change in research activity in a discipline over time 2007-11 to 2012-16 (world average activity index of a given subject is taken as 100), witnessed increase in all subjects from 2007-11 to 2012-16. Nursing registered the highest citation impact per paper of 21.22, followed by agricultural & biological sciences (19.27), neurosciences (17.95), biochemistry, genetics & molecular biology (16.39), chemistry (16.30), medicine (12.54), immunology and microbiology (10.53) and pharmacology, toxicology & pharmaceutics (8.80) during 2006-15 (Table 4).

Profile of Top 25 Most Productive Indian Organizations

The productivity of 25 most productive global organizations in Indian obesity research varied from 33 to 350 publications and together they contributed 43.64% (1728) publication share and 82.03% (40616) citation share to its cumulative publications output during 2007-16. The scientometric profile of these 25 organizations is presented in Table 5. Six of these organizations registered publications output greater than the group average of 69.12: All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi (350 papers), Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh (125 papers), Madras Diabetes Research Foundation (114 papers), National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad (104 papers), Fortis Healthcare (90 papers) and King Edward Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (84 papers) during 2007-16. Six organizations registered impact above the group average of 23.5 citations per publication during 2007-16: King Edward Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (67.42), Fortis Healthcare (57.09), Diabetes Research Center, Chennai (52.27), National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Mohali (51.74), Madras Diabetes Research Foundation 114 (33.04) and All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (27.31) during 2007-16. Eight organizations registered h-index above the group average of 15.96: All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (51), King Edward Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (32), Madras Diabetes Research Foundation (30), Fortis Healthcare (28), National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad (22), Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh (21), National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Mohali (19) and Diabetes Research Center, Chennai (18) during 2007-16. Seven organizations contributed international collaborative publications share above the group average of 20.78%: King Edward Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (47.62%), Christian Medical College, Vellore (37.78%), Madras Diabetes Research Foundation (36.84%), Fortis Healthcare (35.56%), Diabetes Research Center, Chennai (30.3%), National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad (27.88%) and Maulana Azad Medical College, Delhi (25.86%) during 2007-16. Six organizations registered the relative citation index above the group average (1.88) of all organizations: King Edward Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (5.39), Fortis Healthcare (4.57), Diabetes Research Center, Chennai (4.18), National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Mohali (4.14), Madras Diabetes Research Foundation (2.64) and All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (2.18) during 2007-16.

Table 4

Subject-Wise Breakup of Publications in Obesity Research in India during 2007-16

S.NoSubject*Number of Papers (TP)Activity IndexTCCPP%TP
2007-112012-162007-162007-112012-162007-162007-162007-16
1Medicine10362497353387.05106.584431212.5489.22
2Biochemistry, Genetics & Molecular Biology370986135681.00109.652222216.3934.24
3Pharmacology, Toxicology & Pharmaceutics22758681382.88108.6971568.8020.53
4Nursing10722333096.25101.90700221.228.33
5Agricultural & Biological Sciences6217423677.99111.18454719.275.96
6Chemistry24568089.06105.56130416.302.02
7Neurosciences16607662.50119.05136417.951.92
8Immunology & microbiology14526662.97118.8169510.531.67
Total Indian Output133426263960100.00100.00

• There is overlapping of literature covered under various subjects

TP=Total Papers; TC=Total Citations; CPP=Citations Per Paper

Table 5

Scientometric Profile of Top 25 Most Productive Organizations in Obesity Research in India during 2007-16

S.NoName of the OrganizationTPTCCPPHIICP%ICPRCI
1All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi350955927.31517020.002.18
2Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh125234918.79212217.601.50
3Madras Diabetes Research Foundation114376733.04304236.842.64
4National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad104200119.24222927.881.54
5Fortis Healthcare90513857.09283235.564.57
6King Edward Memorial Hospital, Mumbai84566367.42324047.625.39
7Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences (SGPGIMS), Lucknow6872210.621568.820.85
8Manipal University652023.1181116.920.25
9CSM Medical University, Lucknow655838.9711710.770.72
10Maulana Azad Medical College, Delhi58130122.43121525.861.79
11Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi572925.1210915.790.41
12University of Delhi544919.0911611.110.73
13Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry5363211.921147.550.95
14Christian Medical College, Vellore4563214.0491737.781.12
15National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Mohali39201851.741937.694.14
16University of Calcutta383689.681125.260.77
17Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata3845511.9713718.420.96
18Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore371343.62625.410.29
19Visva Bharti University3756815.351125.411.23
20Kasturba Medical College, Manipal351153.296411.430.26
21University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi3566418.971338.571.52
22National Institute of Mental Health & Allied Sciences, Bangalore352777.919617.140.63
23Panjab University, Chandigarh3544412.6913617.141.01
24Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi3451615.189411.761.21
25Diabetes Research Center, Chennai33172552.27181030.304.18
Total of 25 organizations17284061623.5015.9635920.781.88
Total of India39604951212.50
Share of top 25 organizations in India total output43.6482.03

TP=Total Papers; TC=Total Citations; CPP=Citations Per Paper; HI=h-index; ICP=International Collaborative Papers; RCI=Relative Citation Index

Table 6

Scientometric Profile of Top 20 Most Productive Authors in Obesity Research in India during 2007-16

S .NoName of the AuthorAffiliation of the AuthorTPTCCPPHIICP%ICPRCI
1Anoop MisraDiabetes Foundation, New Delhi123570946.41403427.643.71
2V.MohanMadras Diabetes Research Foundation99345134.86293232.322.79
3N.K.VikramAIIMS-New Delhi58293050.52261322.414.04
4R.M.PandeyAIIMS-New Delhi54211039.07241425.933.13
5D.PrabhakaranAIIMS-New Delhi49366174.71203775.515.98
6C.S.YajnikKing Edward Memorial Hospital, Mumbai54447682.89263361.116.63
7R.GuptaMonilok Hospital & Research Center, Jaipur45362480.53221431.116.44
8A.RamchandranMV Hospital For Diabetes, Chennai45256156.91451840.004.55
9A.GhoshUniversity of Calcutta4142410.341324.880.83
10K.S.ReddyAIIMS-New Delhi41271766.27213073.175.30
11N.TandonAIIMS-New Delhi3654015.00151130.561.20
12C.SnehalathaMV Hospital For Diabetes, Chennai34177552.21201132.354.18
13R.M.AnjanaMadras Diabetes Research Foundation3184827.35151341.942.19
14R.B.SinghHeart Research Laboratory, Moradabad3083027.67182376.672.21
15R.DeepaMadras Diabetes Research Foundation28162458.0019828.574.64
16A.V.KurpadSt John’s Research Institute, Bangalore2778028.89162696.302.31
17G,V.KrishnaveniHoldsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore1651832.38716100.002.59
18S.V.MadhuUniversity College of Medical Science, Delhi1656235.131116.252.81
19R.K.MarwahaINMAS-Delhi1619612.25916.250.98
20G.R.ChandokCCMB-Hyderabad1557738.47111280.003.08
 Total of 15 authors8583991346.5220.3534940.683.72
  Total of India39604951212.50
  Share of top 15 authors in Indian total output21.6780.61

TP=Total Papers; TC=Total Citations; CPP=Citations Per Paper; HI=h-index; ICP=International Collaborative Papers; RCI=Relative Citation Index

Profile of Top 20 Most Productive Indian Authors

The research productivity of top 20 most productive authors in Indian obesity research varied from 15 to 123 publications. Together they contributed 21.67% (858) global publication share and 80.61% (39913) citation share during 2007-16. The scientometric profile of these 20 authors is presented in Table 6. Eight authors registered publications output above the group average of 42.9: Anoop Misra (123 papers), V. Mohan (99 papers), N.K.Vikram (58 papers), R.M. Pandey and C.S.Yajnik (54 papers each) D. Prabhakaran (49 papers), R. Gupta and A. Ramchandran (45 papers each) during 2007-16.Eight authors registered impact above the group average of 46.52 citations per publication: C.S.Yajnik (82.89), R. Gupta (80.53), D. Prabhakaran (74.71), K.S. Reddy (66.27), R. Deepa (58.0), A. Ramchandran (56.91), C. Snehalatha (52.21) and N.K. Vikram (50.52) during 2007-16. Eight authors registered h-index above the group average of 20.35 of all authors: A. Ramchandran (45), Anoop Misra (40) V. Mohan (29), C.S. Yajnik and N.K. Vikram (26 each), R.M. Pandey (24), R. Gupta (22) K.S. Reddy (21) and D. Prabhakaran(20) during 2007-16. Eight authors contributed international collaborative publications share above the group average of 40.68% of all authors: G.V. KrishnaveniHoldsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore (100.0%), A.V. Kurpad (96.3%), G.R. Chandok (80.0%), R.B. Singh (76.67%), D. Prabhakaran (75.51%), K.S. Reddy (73.17%), C.S. Yajnik (61.11%) and R.M. Anjana (41.94%) during 2007-16. Eight authors registered the relative citation index above the group average (3.72) of all authors: C.S. Yajnik (6.63), R. Gupta (6.44), D. Prabhakaran (5.98), K.S. Reddy (5.30), R. Deepa (4.64), A. Ramchandran (4.55), C. Snehalatha (4.18) and N.K. Vikram (4.04) during 2007-16.

Medium of Communication

Of the total Indian output in obesity research, 98.71% (4503) appeared in journals. The top 15 most productive journals accounted for 42 to 113 papers each in obesity research and together accounted for 19.94% share (910 papers) of total journal publication output during 2007-16. The publication share of these top 15 most productive journals increased from 19.16% to 20.27% between 2007-11 and 2012-16. The top most productive journal (with 113 papers) was Journal of Clinical & Diagnostic Research, followed by Indian Journal of Medical Research (96 papers), Indian Pediatrics (80 papers), Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Biology & Chemical Sciences (76 papers), etc. during 2007-16 (Table 7).

Table 7

Top 15 Most Productive Journals in Obesity Research in India during 2007-16

Name of the JournalNumber of Papers
2007-112012-162007-16
Journal of Clinical & Diagnostic Research12101113
Indian Journal of Medical Research425496
Indian Pediatrics255580
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Biology & Chemical Sciences166076
International Journal of Pharma & BioSciences155469
PLOS One75158
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome. Clinical Research & Development362157
Obesity Surgery75057
Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development154156
Indian Heart Journal104454
Journal of Association of Physicians of India213152
Indian Journal of Pediatrics153550
Diabetic Obesity & Metabolism133649
Journal of Indian Medical Association202343
Indian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology182442
Total254656910
India’s Total132632374563
Share of 15 journals in India’s total19.1620.2719.94

Significant Keywords

Around 44 significant keywords have been identified from the literature, which point to possible trends in Indian obesity research. These keywords are listed in Table 8 in the decreasing order of the frequency of occurrence during 2007-16 (Table 8).

Highly Cited Papers

A total of 114 highly cited papers were identified which received citations from 100 to 1805 during 2007-16. These 114 papers together received 28158 citations, which averaged to 247.0 citations per paper. Of the 114 highly cited papers, 32 resulted from the participation of single organization (non-collaborative) and 82 involved the participation of two or more organizations (25 national collaborative and 57 international collaborative). Among international collaborative papers, the largest participation was from USA (35 papers), followed by U.K. (29 papers), Australia (17 papers), Canada (13 papers), Japan and Germany (12 papers each), Switzerland and France (11 papers each), Italy, China, South Africa and Denmark (8 papers each), Brazil and Taiwan (6 papers each), etc., The leading Indian organizations involved in high cited papers were: All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (27 papers), King Edward Memorial Hospital (14 papers), Madras Diabetes Research Foundation (10 papers), Fortis Healthcare (9 papers), Public Health Foundation of India, New Delhi (7 papers), Diabetes Research Center, Madras (5 papers), National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Mohali, Diabetes Foundation, Delhi (4 papers), Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, South Asia Network for Chronic Diseases, Delhi, Sunder Lal Jain Hospital, Delhi , Healis-Sekhsaria Institute of Public Health, Mumbai (3 papers), National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, Maulana Azad Medical College, Delhi and CSM Medical University, Lucknow, Medical College, Jaipur, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, Sitaram Bhartia Institute of Science & Research, Delhi (2 papers each), etc . Of the 114 highly cited papers, 72 were published as articles, 38 as review papers and 4 as conference paper. These 114 highly cited papers were published in 69 journals, of which 11 papers were published in The Lancet, followed by International Journal of Obesity and Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice (6 papers each), Nutrition (5 papers), Diabetes Care and Diabetologia (4 papers each), New England Journal of Medicine (3 papers), Nature Genetics, The Lancet Oncology, World Psychiatry, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Diabetes, Indian Journal of Medical Research, Journal of Association of Physicians of India, PLOS One, Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology (Australia), Diabetic Medicine, PLOS Medicine and Proceedings of the Nutrition Society (2 papers each), and 1 paper each by 50 other journals.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

India published 3960 publications in obesity research in 10 years during 2007-16, as reflected in Scopus database. Its annual publications increased from 206 in the year 2007 to 416 publications in the year 2016, experiencing 10.28% growth per annum. India was ranked at 15th position in global obesity output and its global share was just 2.02%, which increased from 1.59% during 2007-11 to 2.35% during 2012-16. India’s obesity research registered an average citation impact per publication of 12.50 citations per publication (CPP) during 2007-16, which decreased from 23.02 to 7.16 from 2007-11 to 2012-16.The share of India’s internationally collaborative papers (ICP) in its obesity research output was 20.25% during 2007-16, which increased from 17.92% to 21.44% from 2007-11 to 2012-16. USA topped the list with 59.48% share in India’s international collaborative papers, followed by U.K. (34.41%), Canada (14.21%), Australia (13.59%), China (9.85%), Japan (8.73%), Brazil (6.98%), etc.

Table 8

List of Significant Keywords in Literature on Obesity Research in India during 2007-16

S.NoKeywordFrequencyS.NoKeywordFrequency
1Obesity396423Smoking348
2Body Mass148524Weight Reduction340
3Hypertension95625Triacylglycerol Blood Level321
4Diabetes Mellitus93126Metabolism315
5Body Mass Index79227Diet292
6Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus78228Waist Hip Ratio290
7Insulin Resistance71129Blood Pressure287
8Glucose69230Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol279
9Glucose Blood Level68631Diastolic Blood Pressure217
10Body Weight62732Inflammation217
11Triacylglycerol59933Blood210
12Disease Association57634Abdominal Obesity209
13Insulin56435Insulin Blood Level207
14Metabolic Syndrome53936Coronary Artery Disease205
15Waist Circumference45337Body Fat201
16Cardiovascular Disease43938Hyperglycemia198
17Cholesterol Blood Level40939Metformin196
18Cholesterol40440Lipid Diet176
19Diabetes Mellitus Type 239841Body Composition176
20Cardiovascular Risk38942Alcohol Consumption170
21High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol37843Hyperlipidemia155
22Dyslipidemia36944Pregnancy155

Medicine accounted for highest publications share (89.22%) among various subjects contributing to India obesity research , followed by biochemistry, genetics & molecular biology (34.24%), pharmacology, toxicology & pharmaceutics (20.53%), nursing (8.33%), agricultural & biological sciences (5.96%), chemistry (2.02%), neurosciences (1.92%) and immunology and microbiology (1.67%) during 2007-16. The top 25 and 20 most productive Indian organizations and authors together contributed 43.64% and 21.67% respectively as their share of Indian publication output and 82.03% and 80.61% respectively as their share of Indian citation output during 2007-16. Among the total journal output of 4503 papers, the top 15 journals contributed 19.94% share to the Indian journal output during 2007-16, which increased from 19.16% to 20.27% from 2007-11 to 2012-16.

Of the total Indian output in Indian obesity research, 114 papers are considered as highly cited papers, as they have received 100 to 1805 during 2007-16. These 114 papers together received 28158 citations, which averaged to 247.0 citations per paper. Of the 114 highly cited papers, 32 resulted from the participation of single organization (non-collaborative) and 82 involved the participation of two or more organizations (25 national collaborative and 57 international collaborative). Among international collaborative papers, the largest participation was from USA (35 papers), followed by U.K. (29 papers), Australia (17 papers), Canada (13 papers), Japan and Germany (12 papers each), etc. The leading Indian organizations involved in high cited papers were: All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (27 papers), King Edward Memorial Hospital (14 papers), Madras Diabetes Research Foundation (10 papers), Fortis Healthcare (9 papers), Public Health Foundation of India, New Delhi (7 papers), etc. These 114 highly cited papers were published in 69 journals, of which 11 papers were published in The Lancet, followed by International Journal of Obesity and Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice (6 papers each), Nutrition (5 papers), Diabetes Care and Diabetologia (4 papers each), New England Journal of Medicine (3 papers), etc.

Concludes that obesity significantly increases mortality and morbidity in both developed and developing country (including India), with substantial economic impact to the family and the country. In order to tackle this complex problem, education and awareness is the key. Indian Government and nongovernment organizations should develop an integrated, multi-sectoral, population-based approach, which includes environmental support for healthy diets and regular physical activity. Key elements include: (i) Creating supportive population-based environments through public policies that promote the availability and accessibility of a variety of low-fat, high-fibre foods, and that provide opportunities for physical activity; (ii) Promoting healthy behaviours to encourage, motivate and enable individuals to lose weight by: eating more fruit and vegetables, as well as nuts and whole grains; engaging in daily moderate physical activity for at least 30 minutes; - cutting the amount of fatty, sugary foods in the diet; moving from saturated animal-based fats to unsaturated vegetable-oil based fats, (iii) Mounting a clinical response to the existing burden of obesity and associated conditions through clinical programmes and staff training to ensure effective support for those affected to lose weight or avoid further weight gain

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