Medicinal Plant Images

Cock: Medicinal Plant Images

Authors

Figure 1

Aloe is a genus of approximately 400 succulent plants, many of which are native to Africa. Plants of the genus Aloe have one of the longest recorded history of medicinal usage and are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. The Aloes have been used since ancient times, particularly for the treatment of microbial infections, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory conditions [1]. Aloe vera, Aloe ferox, Aloe arborescens and Aloe perryi are the best known and most widely used, although many other species are also used for their therapeutic properties. Despite their wide spread usage, studies from different laboratories often report wide variations in the therapeutic bioactivities from Aloe spp., with some studiers reporting potent antibacterial activity [2, 3], yet other studies reporting a complete lack of activity [4]. Leaves from individual plants within the same species may have widely varying levels of the bioactive phytochemicals and thus wide variances in bioactivity. Phytochemical analyses have shown that many Aloe species contain various carbohydrate polymers (notably glucomannans) and a range of other low molecular weight phenolic compounds including alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, benzene and furan derivatives, chromones, coumarins, flavonoids, phytosterols, pyrans and pyrenes [1]. Intra and interspecies differences in the levels and redox states of the individual Aloe components (and in the ratios of these components) may affect the physiological properties of Aloe extracts [5]. Due to the structure and chemical nature of many of the Aloe phytochemicals, it is likely that many of the reported medicinal properties are due to antioxidant or prooxidant effects. The antioxidant/prooxidant activities of many Aloe spp. phytochemicals depend not only on their individual levels, but also on the ratios between the various components and their individual redox states. Therefore, discrepencies between bioactivity studies are likely when using different crude mixtures. This photograph was taken in Kirstenbosch Botanic Gardens, Cape Town, South Africa by Dr Ian Cock in December 2010.

https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/jourdata/pc/PharmacognCommn-7-3-139-g001.jpg

REFERENCES

1. 

Cock IE , author. The genus Aloe: Phytochemistry and therapeutic uses including treatments for gastrointestinal conditions and chronic inflammation. Progress in Drug Research. 2015;70:179–235

2. 

Saritha V , author. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Aloe vera gel extracts. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Archive. 2010;1(4)

3. 

Cock IE , author. Antimicrobial activity of Aloe barbadensis Miller leaf gel components. Internet J Microbiol. 2008;4:2

4. 

Mpala L, Chikowe G, Cock IE , authors. No evidence of antiseptic properties and low toxicity of selected Aloe species. J Pharm Negative Results. 2010;1;1:10–16

5. 

Cock IE , author. Problems of reproducibility and efficacy of bioassays using crude extracts, with reference to Aloe vera. Pharmacognosy Communications. 2011;1(1):52–62. DOI: 10.5530/pc.2011.1.3




Authors


Figure 2

Australian Acacia spp.: The genus Acacia (family Fabaceae) is a large genus of more than 1200 trees and shrubs which are widely distributed throughout the world, with more than 700 species indigenous to Australia. The Australian species had multiple medicinal uses by indigenous Australians, including use to treat diarrhoea and hyperglycemia [1]and as a general antiseptic agent [24]. Many Acacia spp. have also been reported to have amtimicrobial, molluskicidal, antihypertensive and platelet aggregatory activities [4].Recent studies have reported that Australian [5, 6] and South African Acacia spp. [7, 8] inhibit some bacterial triggers of the autoimmune inflammatory diseases rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Furthermore, several Acacia spp. inhibit the growth of food spoilage bacteria and therefore are useful as natural preservatives [4, 9]. This photograph was taken in Toohey Forrest, Queensland, Australia by Dr Ian Cock in 2016.

https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/jourdata/pc/PharmacognCommn-7-3-139-g002.jpg

References

1. 

Cock IE , author. Medicinal and aromatic plants – Australia. In Ethnopharmacology, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS). Developed under the auspices of UNESCO. EOLSS Publishers; Oxford, UK: [http://www.eolss.net].

2. 

Cock IE , author. Antibacterial activity of selected Australian native plant extracts. Internet J Microbiol. 2008;4:2

3. 

Cock IE , author. The antimicrobial activity of Acacia aulacocarpa and Acacia complanta methanolic extracts. Pharmacognosy Communications. 2012;2(1):66–71

4. 

Cock IE , author. Australian Acacia spp. Extracts as natural food preservatives: Growth inhibition of food spoilage and food poisoning bacteria. Pharmacognosy Communications. 2017;7(1):4–15. DOI: 10.5530/pc.2017.1.2

5. 

Cock IE, Winnett V, Sirdaarta JU, Matthews B , authors. The potential of selected Australian medicinal plants with anti-Proteus activity for the treatment and prevention of rheumatoid arthritis. Pharmacognosy Magazine. 2015;11(42 Suppl 1):S190–S208. DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.157734

6. 

Winnett V, Sirdaarta J, White A, Clarke FM, Cock IE , authors. Inhibition of Klebsiella pneumoniae growth by selected Australian plants: Natural approaches for the prevention and management of ankylosing spondylitis. Inflammopharmacology. 2017;DOI: doi:10.1007/s10787-017-0328-1

7. 

Cock IE, van Vuuren SF , authors. Anti-Proteus activity of some South African medicinal plants: their potential for the prevention of rheumatoid arthritis. Inflammopharmacology. 2014;22:23–36. DOI: 10.1007/s10787-013-0179-3

8. 

Cock IE, van Vuuren SF , authors. The potential of selected South African plants with anti-Klebsiella activity for the treatment and prevention of ankylosing spondylitis. Inflammopharmacology. 2015;23:21–35. DOI: 10.1007/s10787-014-0222-z

9. 

Cock IE, van Vuuren SF , authors. South African food and medicinal plant extracts as potential antimicrobial food agents. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015;52(11):6879–6899. DOI: 10.1007/s13197-015-1806-3