Assessment of Risk Factors for the Cardiovascular Diseases in People Visiting a Tertiary Care Hospital for Routine Medical Check-Up

Eidgahi, Shaik, Rajeev Hiremath, Patil, and Srinivas: Assessment of Risk Factors for the Cardiovascular Diseases in People Visiting a Tertiary Care Hospital for Routine Medical Check-Up



With the turn of the century, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have become the single largest causes of disability and deaths in developing countries such as India.1 Global status report on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) in 2014 highlights that 70% of deaths globally are due to NCDs and among them CVD contribute 44.25%.2

According to the Global Burden of Disease study age-standardized estimates (2010), nearly a quarter (24.8%) of all deaths in India are attributable to CVDs.3 Behavioural and metabolic risk factors such as physical inactivity, overweight/obesity and dyslipidemia along with low socioeconomic class are some of the most important modifiable risk factors.2 Prevalence of risk factors varies in different regions in India for instance prevalence of obesity and overweight was the higher in southern and northern and the lowest in central India.4

Being one of the nation with a large number of young people in the world, India is set to lose its productive population to CVD morbidity and mortality.5 which is the first among top five causes of deaths in Indian population.6 Dyslipidemia is one of the key modifiable risk factors that attributes to CVD, when Indians’ fat intake increased from 24 to 36 g/d and from 36 to 50 g/d in individuals in rural and urban areas, respectively.7 Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with high trans-fat content contribute to a significant proportion of total fat intake in Indians, and the consumption of partially hydrogenated vegetable oil is particularly common in urban adult slum dwellers belonging to the lowest socioeconomic status (SES).8,9

The Indian Council of Medical Research-India Diabetes study (ICMRINDIAB) study assessed physical activity using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire which showed that one in every 2 individuals was considered physically inactive. In addition, <10% of the studied population engaged in recreational physical activity and physical inactivity was higher in urban areas, for women.10

The aim of this study was to determine the risk parameters of healthy individuals such as age, BMI, dyslipidemia, physical inactivity, low socioeconomic class and smoking, in the study population.


Prior approval was obtained from the Institutional Ethical Committee of hospital and written informed consent form was taken from each participant before enrolled them in the study. This prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Bangalore. Study consisted of 92 volunteers, who attended the outpatient and inpatient of St. Philomena’s hospital for various conditions. Patients of age 30 years and above were included in the study and patients with pre-existing CVD, DM, hypertension and hypothyroidism were excluded.

Along with demographic details, objective anthropometric measurements like height, weight, Body Mass Index, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical details [lipid profile - triglycerides (TG), High density lipoproteins (HDL), Low density lipoproteins(LDL), Cholesterol], Physical activity, socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking were recorded in the out-patient and inpatient department according to standard prescribed guidelines. For calculating the risk of CVD, various assessment methods were available but our study used Joint British Societies for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (JBS3) method which is suitable for Indian population.11 BMI classified based on World Health Organisation (WHO).12 Lipid profile according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) guideline.13 andthe modified Kuppuswamy scale was used to measure SES in urban communities. The Kuppuswamy scale was devised by Kuppuswamy in 1976 and is based on a composite score considering the education and occupation of the head of the family along with monthly income of the family, which yields a score of 3-29. This scale classifies the study populations into high, middle, and low SES.14

Statistical Analysis

Collected information was analysed using Microsoft Office (MS-Word and Excel) 2016. Descriptive data analysis was performed in the form of percentage of demographic variables.


The study population comprised of 92 subjects and included 44 males and 48 females. .. According to WHO classification of BMI, nearly 62% of our study subjects would fit in overweight/obese class and 17.39% of subjects had normal BMI of 18.5-22.9. Based on gender, 70.83% of females and 52.27% of males were pre-obese/obese. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL were significantly more in females but hypercholesterolemia and high LDL were higher in males (83% vs. 79%, 95% vs. 81%, 31% vs. 27%, 42.6% vs. 86%) respectively (Figure 1 and 2). Self-reported physical activity of the participants showed that out of 92 study subjects, only 34 were being physically active [36.95%]. Based on the socioeconomic status approximately 91.3% of study subjects belonged to upper lower and lower class (Kuppuswamy scale). In the study, out of 44 males, 32 reported to be smokers, 46.87% were in age group of 50-69 followed by 37.5% in 30-49 and remaining in 70-89 years of age.

Figure 1

This Figure showed the abnormal Total cholesterol and Triglyceride level in male and female study subjects.

TC ABNormal M= Total cholesterol abnormal in males, TC ABNormal F= Total cholesterol abnormal in females, TG ABNormal M= Triglyceride abnormal in males, TG ABNormal F= Triglyceride abnormal in females

Figure 2

This Figure indicated the abnormal HDL and LDL in male and female participant


This study investigated the common risk factors for CVD among healthy individuals without co-morbidities. A study by Sawant (2008) indicated that the increased prevalence of dyslipidemia was high among age group 31 to 40 years in men in Mumbai, India, suggesting that this class is at increased risk of developing coronary artery disease leading to young people developing infarcts whereas in our study age group of 70-89(29.3%) followed by 50-69(11.3%) and finally 30-49(2.21) were at risk of developing cardiovascular problem, therefore the result showed as the age is increasing risk of CVD is also proportionally increasing (Figure 3).15

Figure 3

This Figure showed as the age is increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases also increased proportionally.

Globally obesity rates have more than doubled since 1980 from 5% to 10% in men and 8% to 14% in women. Based on the data published in WHO in the South-East Asia Region, 300,000 dies of overweight/obesity. Our study results also support the high prevalence of over-weight and obesity in female than in male respectively. (59.37% vs 40.62%, 60% vs 40%). Over-weight and obesity is preventable through educational interventions among other aspects such as policy changes that facilitates access to nutritious food.12

Another study reported the prevalence rates of abnormal lipid levels (including borderline dyslipidemia and dyslipidemia) at 47.8%, 13.8%, 25.7% and 30.7% for TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and TG respectively which was similar to our study with abnormal HDL, LDL, TG and TC of 31.5%, 29.2%, 28% and 10.4% respectively (Table 1).16

Table 1

This table demonstrate the dyslipidemia as per Age and Gender.

MALE (n=44)FEMALE (n=48)
HDL (n=92)341020NR (n=10)
1813517290AB_NR (n=82)
LDL (n=92)420370NR (n=16)
1715614240AB_ NR (n=76)
TC (n=92)1312510250NR (n=65)
851760AB_NR (n=27)
TG (n=92)630440NR (n=17)
1514613270AB_NR (n=75)
30-49 (n=21)50-69(n=17)70-89 (n= 6)30-49 (n= 17)50-69 (n= 31)70-89 (n= 0)

NR=Normal, AB_NR=Abnormal

Compared with the western populations, Indians tend to have higher TG levels and lower HDL-C levels but the total cholesterol and LDL-C levels are generally lower, similar to this study, in case of TG and total cholesterol. Serial epidemiological studies in India suggest a rapid rise in the mean levels of LDL-C and TG, and our study also showed the mean of 129%, 185.1% respectively which were high based on NCEP-ATP III guideline. Based on the various studies across India, range of hypercholesterolemia was found between 20-35% but our study showed 10.4%, which was lower than the range described (Table 2).

Table 2

This table showed the mean level of Age, BMI, Blood Pressure, Heart age and Lipid profile parameters of participant.

Particulars (Mean)Male=44Female=48
Age (Years)51.052.6
BMI (kg/m2)26.929.3
SBP (mmHg)135127.7
DBP (mmHg)8884.4
Heart age (Years)55.855.9
HDL (mg/dl)42.141.9
LDL (mg/dl)129.5116.6
TC (mg/dl)182.7170
TG (mg/dl)185.1170.4

Indian and Indian migrants have atherogenic dyslipidemia (high TG and low HDL level) due to environmental factors such as socioeconomic status and genetic predisposion, atherogenic dyslipidemia found to be associated with cardiovascular diseases, in comparison with western population, Indian are more prone to get atherogenic dyslipidemia.17 The result of our study indicated 36.95% of participant had atherogenic dyslipidemia.

In a study carried out by Karpov.Y et al in 2015 in Russia, rate of hypertriglyceridemia was 29.2 %.18 Globally, around 23% of adults aged 18 and over were not active enough in 2010 (men 20% and women 27%). There is enough evidence that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for development of CAD, obesity, dyslipidemia.19,20,21,22 Physical activity is associated with reduction in risk for CAD and obesity. In India, a large percentage (392 million) of the people are physically inactive23 and our study also indicated that majority of patients were having sedentary life style (58 out of 92), and females [65.51%] were physically more inactive than males [34.49%]. Lower socioeconomic status (SES), whether assessed by income, education, or occupation, is linked to a wide range of health problems.24 Lower SES is associated with higher mortality, and the greatest disparities occur in middle adulthood (ages 45–65).25 Education improves the cognitive skills and assists in navigating the health care system and enhanced self-care.26 Adults with a higher education—especially in today’s knowledge economy—have conspicuous advantages in gaining employment and finding desirable jobs. Advanced degrees give workers not only high salary and job satisfaction but also health benefits.27-29 In our results, also 91.3% of participants belonged to lower socioeconomic class.

Globally, tobacco kills more than 7 million people each year. Nearly 80% of the world’s more than 1 billion smokers live in low- and middle-income countries.72.7% of our male study participant self-reported as being smokers and 46.87% of them were in the age group of 50-69 followed by 30-49 age of years (37.5%) and remaining at age of 70-89. The prevalence of smoking was significantly higher in men (13.8%) than in women (0.1%) in another study.30


The present study reveals that with the progression of age, the risk of heart attack increased in most our study population. Approximately 62% of study subjects were overweight/obese. Abnormal HDL level was 31.5% followed by LDL 29.2%, triglyceride 28.8% and total cholesterol 10.4%. 63% of participant had sedentary life style. 91.3% of study subjects were belongs to lower socioeconomic class. 72.72% of male participant were current smoker. Therefore, we enumerate the risk factors of CVD in our study participants as

  1. Age

  2. Overweight/obesity

  3. Dyslipidemia

  4. Physical inactivity

  5. Low SES (Socioeconomic status)

  6. Smoking


We wish to thank the management of Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Management of St. Philomena’s Hospital, Bangalore for the support extended in the completion of this project. We also thank Mr. Anas Abdul Salam and Mr. Mohammed Kazim Sheriff, staff of Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy for their support and help in the conduct of the research.



Joint British Societies recommendations on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases


Cardiovascular diseases


Non-communicable disease


Socioeconomic class


Indian Council of Medical Research-India Diabetic Study


Diabetes Mellitus


Blood Pressure




High Density Lipoproteins


Low Density Lipo Proteins


World Health Organisation


National Cholesterol Education Program adult Treatment Panel III


Body Mass Index


Coronary Artery disease.


The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Cardiovascular diseases have become the single leading cause of death and disease burden in India. The relatively early onset age of cardiovascular diseases in India in com-parison to Western countries also implies that most productive ages of the patient’s life are lost fighting the disease. Deaths associated with cardiovascular events remains constant in many countries due to new therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This condition is widely attributable to unhealthy outcomes in its association with risk factors such as age, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, low socioeconomic state and sedentary lifestyle which play a significant role in the progression of cardiovascular diseases. The methodology used in the study was prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Bangalore over 6 months. Subjects between 30-89 years of age visiting in and out-patient department of St. Philomena’s Hospital, Bangalore were enrolled in the study. Subjects with diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism and who were on anti-hyper lipidemic agents were excluded. 92 subjects (44 male and 48 female) were included in the study, among whom 48(52.2%) were in the age group of 50-69 years. Ab¬normal total cholesterol and Low Density Lipoproteins were found more in male subjects and abnormal High Density Lipoproteins and triglycerides were found predominantly high in female subjects. Approximately 62% of study participant were obese and overweight, only 34 out of 92 participants were doing physical activity, nearly 91.3% were belonged to lower socioeconomic class and among male participants 32 of them were current smoker. The result indicated that as the age increases, the risk of CVD raises. our study showed that the common risk factors among our subjects without comorbidity were age, obesity and over-weight, dyslipidemia, physical inactivity, low socioeconomic status and smoking.



Bansal M, Chandra SK, Nair T, Iyengar S, Gupta R, Manchanda S , authors. et al. Consensus statement on the management of dyslipidemia in Indian subjects: Our perspective. Indian Heart Journal. 2016;68(2):238–41


GBD 2015 Risk Factors Collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 , author. Lancet. 2016;388(10053):1659–1724


Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation , author. GBD Compare. 2010 30–2014


Wang Y, Chen HJ, Shaikh S, Mathur P , authors. Is obesity becoming a public health problem in India? Examine the shift from under- to overnutrition problems over time. Obes Rev. 2009;10:456–74


The rising incidence of cardiovascular diseases in India:Assessing its economic impact Shraddha Chauhan, PhD Scholar; Bani T. Aeri, PhD.


Gupta R, Guptha S, Sharma KK, Gupta A, Deedwania P , authors. Regional variations in cardiovascular risk factors in India: India Heart Watch. World J Cardiol. 2012;4(4):112–20


Ramachandran P , author. The Double Burden of Malnutrition in India., Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization; 2006


Dhaka V, Gulia N, Ahlawat KS, Khatkar BS , authors. Trans fats-sources, health risks and alternative approach – a review. J Food Sci Technol. 2011;48(5):534–41. doi: 10.1007/s13197-010-0225.


Misra A, Sharma R, Pandey RM, Khanna N , authors. Adverse profile of dietary nutrients, anthropometry and lipids in urban slum dwellers of northern. 2001;55(9):727


Anjana RM, Pradeepa R, Das AK, Deepa M, Bhansali A, Joshi SR , authors. et al. ICMR–INDIAB Collaborative Study Group. Physical activity and inactivity patterns in India – results from the ICMR-INDIAB study (Phase-1) [ICMR-INDIAB-5]. Int J BehavNutr Phys Act. 2014;11:26doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-11-26.


Joint British Societies’ consensus recommendations for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (JBS3) , author. Heart. 2014;100(2):1–67. (2):ii1–ii67


WHO | Obesity [Internet]. , author. 2017 5 September 2017


NCEP ATP-III Cholesterol Guidelines -- Cholesterol 2.0 - SCYMED [Internet]. , author. 2017 5–September. 2017.


Singh T, Sharma S, Nagesh S , authors. Socio-economic status scales updated for 2017. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2017;5(7):3264–7


Sawant AM, Shetty D , authors. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in young adult Indian population. The Journal of the association of Physicians of India. 2008;56(2):99–102


Sun G, Li Z, Guo L, Zhou Y, Yang H, Sun Y , authors. High prevalence of dyslipidemia and associated risk factors among rural Chinese adults. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2014;13(1):189


Chandra KS, Bansal M, Nair T, Iyengar S, Gupta R, Manchanda S , authors. et al. Consensus statement on management of dyslipidemia in Indian subjects. Indian Heart Journal. 2014;66:S1–S51


Karpov Y , author. Prevalence of Hypertriglyceridemia: New Data across the Russian Population. The PROMETHEUS Study. Kardiologiia. 2016;56(7):63–71


Enas EA, Garg A, Davidson MA, Nair VM, Huet BA, Yusuf S , authors. Coronary heart disease and its risk factors in first-generation immigrant Asian Indians to the United States of America. IndianHeart J. 1996;48(4):343–53


Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S , authors. et al. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the interheart study): case-control study. Lancet. 2004;364:937–952


Jakes RW, Day NE, Khaw KT , authors. et al. Television viewing and low participation in vigorous recreation are independently associated with obesity and markers of cardiovascular disease risk: epic-norfolk population-based study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57(9):1089–96


Hu FB, Li TY, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Manson JE , authors. Television watching and other sedentary behaviors in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA. 2003;289(14):1785–91


Anjana RM, Pradeepa R, Das AK, Deepa M, Bhansali A, Joshi SR , authors. et al. ICMR– INDIAB Collaborative Study Group. Physical activity and inactivity patterns in India‑results from the ICMR‑INDIAB study (Phase‑1) [ICMR‑INDIAB‑5]. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014;11(1):26


Pamuk E , author. et al. Socioeconomic Status and Health Chartbook: Health, United States, 1998 (Hyattsville, Md.: National Center for Health Statistics. p. 199


Adler N, Newman K , authors. Socioeconomic Disparities in Health: Pathways and Policies. Health Affairs. 2002;21(2):60–76


Kaplan GA, Everson SA, Lynch JW , authors. The contribution of social and behavioral research to an understanding of the distribution of disease: a multilevel approach. Smedley BD, Syme SL , editors. Promoting health: intervention strategies from social and behavioral research Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2000. Used with permission.


National Research Council , author. America’s uninsured crisis: consequences for health and health care. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2009


Freeman JD, Kadiyala S, Bell JF , authors. et al. The causal effect of health insurance on utilization and outcomes in adults: a systematic review of U.S. studies. Med Care. 46(10):102332


Hadley J , author. Sicker and poorer-the consequences of being uninsured: a review of the research on the relationship between health insurance, medical care use, health, work, and income. Med Care Res Rev. 2003;60(2):S3–75


Sekhri T, Kanwar R, Wilfred R, Chugh P, Chhillar M, Aggarwal R , authors. et al. Prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery disease in an urban Indian population. BMJ Open. 2014;4(12):005346similar to our study results which also showed majority of males (32 out of 44) as smokers.